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Citations & Bibliographies

This guide provides a brief overview of the purpose of citation and major citation styles.

Chicago Style Overview and Examples

The "notes and bibliography" variant of Chicago style allows you to use numbered endnotes or footnotes in the places where APA and MLA styles use parenthetical in-text citations. There is also an option to use the "author/date" variation if you prefer parenthetical in-text citations. 

Notes and bibliography example:

Algorithms of Oppression enumerates ways that discrimination is "embedded in computer code and, increasingly, in artificial intelligence technologies that we are reliant on, by choice or not."¹

¹ Safiya Umoja Noble, Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism, (New York: New York University Press, 2018), pp. 1-2. 

Reference List

Noble, Safiya Umoja. Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. New York: New York University Press. 2018. 

Chicago (notes and bibliography) 17th ed. examples

note  1. Author Firstname Lastname, “Article Title,” Title of Journal [vol. #], no. [issue #] (Month Year): page numbers.  bibliography  Author Lastname, Firstname. “Article Title.” Title of Journal [vol. #] no. [issue #] (Month Year): page numbers. Platform or URL/DOI.

Chicago 17th (notes & bibliography) journal article templates:

note

1. Author Firstname Lastname, “Article Title,” Title of Journal [vol. #], no. [issue #] (Month Year): page numbers.

bibliography

Author Lastname, Firstname. “Article Title.” Title of Journal [vol. #] no. [issue #] (Month Year): page numbers. Platform or URL/DOI.

Chicago 17th (notes & bibliography) book templates:  note  1. Author Firstname Lastname, Title of Book, (City: Publisher, Year), page numbers.  bibliography  Author Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year. URL/DOI.

Chicago 17th (notes & bibliography) book templates:

note

1. Author Firstname Lastname, Title of Book, (City: Publisher, Year), page numbers.

bibliography

Author Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year. URL/DOI.

Chicago 17th (notes & bibliography) book chapter templates:  note  1. Author Firstname Lastname, “Chapter of Book” in Title of Book, ed. Firstname Lastname, nth ed., (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page numbers, URL/DOI.  bibliography  Author Lastname, Firstname. “Chapter Title.” In Book, edited by Firstname Lastname. City: Publisher, Year. URL/DOI/Medium.

Chicago 17th (notes & bibliography) book chapter templates:

note

1. Author Firstname Lastname, “Chapter of Book” in Title of Book, ed. Firstname Lastname, nth ed., (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page numbers, URL/DOI.

bibliography

Author Lastname, Firstname. “Chapter Title.” In Book, edited by Firstname Lastname. City: Publisher, Year. URL/DOI/Medium.

Website content It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include an access date (as in example note 2).  Notes 1. “Privacy Policy,” Privacy & Terms, Google, last modified April 17, 2017, https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.  2. “About Yale: Yale Facts,” Yale University, accessed May 1, 2017, https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.  3. Katie Bouman, “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole,” filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, video, 12:51, https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.  Shortened notes 4. Google, “Privacy Policy.”  5. “Yale Facts.”  6. Bouman, “Black Hole.”  Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order) Bouman, Katie. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.  Google. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.  Yale University. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.

(screenshot of Chicago Manual of Style citation guide web site taken 7/21/20).

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