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Citations & Bibliographies

This guide provides a brief overview of the purpose of citation and major citation styles.

APA Overview

When you quote, paraphrase or summarize a source, in APA style, you add an in-text citation that records the names of the authors and year of publication in parentheses. At the end of the paper, a reference list gives complete information about where each cited source was published. 

original passage from page 1 of Safiya Umoja Noble's book Algorithms of Oppression
"The near-ubiquitous use of algorithmically driven software, both visible and invisible to everyday people, demands a closer inspection of what values are prioritized in such automated decision-making systems."

Experts point out that the values embedded in many of the computer algorithms that people rely on to gather information should be examined (Noble 2018).

or if you use the author's name in the sentence, you may leave it out of the parenthetical citation:
Safiya Umoja Noble argues that the values embedded in many of the computer algorithms that people rely on to gather information should be examined (2018).

Noble, S. U. (2018). Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. New York University Press.

APA Style Examples (7th ed.)

Author Last name, First Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), page numbers. DOI.

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217.     Parenthetical citation: (Grady et al., 2019)Narrative citation: Grady et al. (2019)

APA journal article general template:

Author Last name, First Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), page numbers. DOI. 

Author Last name, First Initials. (Year). Title of work. Website name. URL

Giovanetti, F. (2019, November 16). Why we are so obsessed with personality types. Medium.     Parenthetical citation: (Giovanetti, 2019)Narrative citation: Giovanetti (2019)

APA web page general template:

Author Last name, First Initials. (Year). Title of work. Website name. URL


Author Last name, First initials. (Year). Title of book (edition). Publisher.

Jackson, L. M. (2019). The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.  Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.     Parenthetical citations: (Jackson, 2019; Sapolsky, 2017)Narrative citations: Jackson (2019) and Sapolsky (2017)

APA book citation general template:

Author Last name, First initials. (Year). Title of book (edition). Publisher.


Chapter author Last name, First initials. (Year). Title of Chapter. In Editor initials Lastname (Ed.) Title of book (edition, pp. #-#). Publisher.

Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345–359). American Psychological Association.  Dillard, J. P. (2020). Currents in the study of persuasion. In M. B. Oliver, A. A. Raney, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp. 115–129). Routledge.     Parenthetical citations: (Aron et al., 2019; Dillard, 2020)Narrative citations: Aron et al. (2019) and Dillard (2020)

APA book chapter citation general template:

Chapter author Last name, First initials. (Year). Title of Chapter. In Editor initials Lastname (Ed.) Title of book (edition, pp. #-#). Publisher.

YouTube video

Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube.     Parenthetical citation: (Harvard University, 2019)Narrative citation: Harvard University (2019)

Data set

O’Donohue, W. (2017). Content analysis of undergraduate psychology textbooks (ICPSR 21600; Version V1) [Data set]. ICPSR.     Parenthetical citation: (O’Donohue, 2017)Narrative citation: O’Donohue (2017)

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