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Citations & Bibliographies

This guide provides a brief overview of the purpose of citation and major citation styles.

APA Overview

When you quote, paraphrase or summarize a source, in APA style, you add an in-text citation that records the names of the authors and year of publication in parentheses. At the end of the paper, a reference list gives complete information about where each cited source was published. 

original passage from page 1 of Safiya Umoja Noble's book Algorithms of Oppression
"The near-ubiquitous use of algorithmically driven software, both visible and invisible to everyday people, demands a closer inspection of what values are prioritized in such automated decision-making systems."

paraphrase
Experts point out that the values embedded in many of the computer algorithms that people rely on to gather information should be examined (Noble 2018).

or if you use the author's name in the sentence, you may leave it out of the parenthetical citation:
Safiya Umoja Noble argues that the values embedded in many of the computer algorithms that people rely on to gather information should be examined (2018).

reference
Noble, S. U. (2018). Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. New York University Press.

APA Style Examples (7th ed.)

APA journal article general template:

Author Last name, First Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), page numbers. DOI. 

APA web page general template:

Author Last name, First Initials. (Year). Title of work. Website name. URL

 

APA book citation general template:

Author Last name, First initials. (Year). Title of book (edition). Publisher.

 

APA book chapter citation general template:

Chapter author Last name, First initials. (Year). Title of Chapter. In Editor initials Lastname (Ed.) Title of book (edition, pp. #-#). Publisher.

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