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Infectious Diseases

A guide to find resources pertaining to current and emerging infectious diseases of concern.

Monkeypox in Brief

Colorized transmission electron micrograph of monkeypox virus particles (yellow and green) cultivated and purified from cell culture. Image captured at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic orthopoxvirus that is in the same genus as variola (causative agent of smallpox). Infection results in a rash similar to smallpox, though infection and mortality rate of monkeypox are less severe. Children under the age of 10 and adults with immunodeficiency are most at risk for severe illness and complications.

Epidemiology

Monkeypox was first discovered in laboratory monkeys in the 1950s, the first human cases were documented in the 1970s in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 

After regular smallpox vaccination was discontinued in the late 1970s, monkeypox infection rates began to increase, with a surveillance study from 2005 to 2007 in the DRC reporting a 20-fold increase in incidence of monkeypox infection compared with that seen in the 1980s. Monkeypox is now considered endemic in several African countries, and sporadic cases outside of endemic countries have been recorded after travel. 

The 2022 outbreak is the first major human-to-human spreading event for the virus. 

Transmission
  • Direct contact with sores, scabs or body fluids
  • Indirect contact with fomites on contaminated surfaces, such as bedding and clothing
  • Respiratory droplets through prolonged face-to-face contact
  • Vertical transmission from mother to fetus via the placenta
  • Unknown if transferable through sexual fluids
Symptoms
  • Incubation is typically 5-13 days; with an average of approximately 8.5 days until symptom onset during the 2022 outbreak
  • Prodromal phase lasts about 5 days and includes:
    • fever,
    • intense headache
    • lymphadenopathy
    • back pain
    • myalgia
    • severe fatigue
  • Rash usually begins within one to four days of appearance of fever and continues for a period of two to three weeks
    • in 2022, rash has occurred with no prodome 
    • Number of lesions ranges from a few to thousands 
    • Common rash areas:  An image titled Visual Examples of Monkeypox Rash and containing six small images of monkeypox lesions on different skintones and in different stages of severity
      • face
      • palms of hands
      • soles of feet
      • genitalia
      • anus
      • oral mucous membranes
      • conjunctivae
    • Rash appearance and stages
      • Begins as 2 to 5 mm diameter macules
      • Evolve to papules, vesicles, and then pustules
      • lesions crust over and fall off within 7 to 14 days
      • Rash is described as painful until lesions crust, and then it become itchy
Complications
  • secondary infections
  • bronchopneumonia
  • sepsis
  • encephalitis
  • infection of the cornea with loss of vision

Medical News & Updates

a cartoon image of a yellow bullhorn underneath a red and blue banner with "Breaking News' written overtop in white.The links below are to resources that have medical news, or current updates, meant for medical professionals. These are not mass media news sites, and contain complex information mainly suitable for healthcare workers or professionals.

 

Published Research

A drawing of an open magazine with abstract images adn lines in varying colors to represent images and textFree collections of normally pay-to-view resources have been compiled by publishers in response to the 2022 Monkeypox outbreak. UNLV also has access to thousands of journals with potential research which can be found through searching one of our hundreds of databases. Simple searches for the topic of monkeypox have been created in four of our resources, some of which my require your ACE login to access.

Publisher Collections (Free Access)
Database Search Results

Results from searches on the topic of monkeypox only in various databases. Go to advanced search to add other topics for more specific results.

Communicating with the Public

A drawn image with two overlaid chat bubbles in the center of  a dotted line circle formed between four head and shoulders figuresSome public health organizations have put together social media and communication kits for health care professionals to use. They often include guidelines on how to avoid stigmatizing language. Patient education and consumer health information materials can also be found from several well-known and trusted organizations. The prepared materials will usually follow health communication and health literacy best practices.

Communication Guidelines & Kits
Information for the Public

Data & Data Dashboards

image in white, teal, read, gray and black of a mix of bar charts, lines, pie charts and area curves floating overtop a computer monitorSeveral people and organizations are tracking monkeypox case counts across the state, United States, and the world. Below are a few publicly available trackers and dashboards. A reminder that the data is only as accurate as the countries collecting and reporting it.

 

Twitter

What to follow on Twitter to stay up to date
Suggested Tags
Suggested Accounts
#Monkeypox @DrEricDing
#MPV @Boghuma
#MPX @LizHighleyman
  @HelenBranswell
  @CDCgov

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