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Citations & Bibliographies

This guide provides a brief overview of the purpose of citation and major citation styles.

MLA Style Helpful Links

MLA Examples

7th edition vs 8th edition

The Modern Language Association (MLA) came out with the 8th edition of the handbook in 2016. This edition has significant changes from the 7th edition. Verify with your instructor which edition they would like you to use.

MLA Works Cited 8th Edition

The 8th edition has decided that everything you could want to cite (a journal article, a chapter in a book, a tweet, a YouTube video) has the same basic core elements. If a source is missing an element (like author, other contributors, version, number, etc), you simply skip it and move on to the next one. Be aware of punctuation and remember that most of the time the "Title of Source" will appear in quotation marks while the Title of Container will appear in italics. 

 Notes on the Examples Above

  • et al. is used when a source has 3 or more authors
  • doi is a permanent identifier for journal articles to make them easier to find. If no doi is available, include a permalink to the URL of the journal article
  • dates are always in the order day month year. The month is abbreviated and there are no commas. 

Parenthetical Citations

Each item in your Works Cited page should be a source that was quoted or paraphrased in your paper. Whenever you quote or paraphrase, you must identify the author (either in your sentence or in your parenthetical citation) and the page number (in your parenthetical citation). Some sources will not have page numbers. 

The study demonstrates “the need to continually emphasise that plagiarism is a breach of academic guidelines and that breaches will be regarded as a serious offence” (Risquez et al. 42).

Risquez et al. believe in “the need to continually emphasise that plagiarism is a breach of academic guidelines and that breaches will be regarded as a serious offence” (42).  

Kohlman believes “intersectionality has refashioned” feminism “by noting the ways in which men and women occupy variant positions of power and privilege across race, space, and time” (34).

Some scholars argue that “intersectionality has refashioned” feminism “by noting the ways in which men and women occupy variant positions of power and privilege across race, space, and time” (Kohlman 34). 

According to Dessem, “some locations were reportedly allocated as few as 20 packets of the precious chicken goop.”

 

MLA Works Cited 7th Edition

The 7th edition had a specific way to cite each kind of source (a journal article, a chapter in a book, a tweet, a YouTube video). It doesn't always identify what elements are and uses abbreviations. For example, in journal articles you will see #.# (####): #-#. #.# are the volume number and issue number. (####) is the publication year. #-# are the page numbers. Be aware of punctuation and remember that most of the time the "Title of Source" will appear in quotation marks while the Title of Container will appear in italics. 

 Notes on the Examples Above

  • when you have two or three authors, the first author's name is written Lastname, Firstname while all other authors are Firstname Lastname. For four or more authors you would write Lastname, Firstname, et al. 
  • each source must be identified as either Print. or Web. depending on whether you physically held the print version of the source or found it online. 
  • dates are always in the order day month year. The month is abbreviated and there are no commas. 

Parenthetical Citations

Each item in your Works Cited page should be a source that was quoted or paraphrased in your paper. Whenever you quote or paraphrase, you must identify the author (either in your sentence or in your parenthetical citation) and the page number (in your parenthetical citation). Some sources will not have page numbers. 

The study demonstrates “the need to continually emphasise that plagiarism is a breach of academic guidelines and that breaches will be regarded as a serious offence” (Risquez, O'Dwyer, and Ledwith 42).

Risquez, O'Dwyer, and Ledwith believe in “the need to continually emphasise that plagiarism is a breach of academic guidelines and that breaches will be regarded as a serious offence” (42).  

Kohlman believes “intersectionality has refashioned” feminism “by noting the ways in which men and women occupy variant positions of power and privilege across race, space, and time” (34).

Some scholars argue that “intersectionality has refashioned” feminism “by noting the ways in which men and women occupy variant positions of power and privilege across race, space, and time” (Kohlman 34). 

According to Dessem, “some locations were reportedly allocated as few as 20 packets of the precious chicken goop.”

Apparently “some locations were reportedly allocated as few as 20 packets of the precious chicken goop” (Dessem). 

 

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